Unvetted servants carrying infectious diseases. The above is the most famous example, but there are plenty of other examples to draw upon. Because a reference wasn’t necessary to secure a position due to the chronic labor shortages of a growing, wealthy society with free right of travel for all whites (and many blacks), a lot of servants would turn up to work in a household and get everyone sick. Usually it wasn’t lethal (even Typhoid Mary had fewer than 10% of her 50+ victims die, the rest recovered), but it still was a very real risk and concern. Anonymity was an early feature of American society, even when housewives still needed domestic help, and this was one of the nasty little side effects of that
- Harder to present the image of a classless society. Being the land of opportunity, America has always struggled with the fact that some people are going to be servants or employees to others for their working lives. Instead of considering this a reason to keep working conditions for domestic servants decent, it was considered a reason to just not have servants. Or lie about them. A notable example can be found during the Eisenhower presidency of the 1950s. His then Vice-President Richard Nixon’s wife spent years pretending she did not have a live-in maid (Swedish), a yard man (ethnic background unknown), and loads and loads of babysitters to watch the two children they had, even to the extent of demanding the help never be photographed or spoken to by reporters doing “A Day in the Life of the Veep’s Wife” fluff pieces. Something to keep in mind when hearing about how housewives don’t need domestic help because appliances. As early as the 1950s, American women had many of what we currently consider modern appliances except for the glorious microwave and front-loading washing machine. But they also had maids and childcare help (which was exempted from wage laws, of course). Well-off Americans have claimed for a long time that they just magically do it all themselves, especially but not strictly conservatives.
Violent responses to poor working conditions. The above is a picture of the Papin sisters, who were French and killed their mistress and her adult daughter after years of 14 hour days. While not American, working conditions for American domestics were frequently not better. This is occluded somewhat by racial stuff, but Northern white women were quite as happy to leave a white female servant bleeding from a slap or the strop as Southern white women were with black female slaves. This is, of course, memoryholed like whoa in American discourse on domestic help. Domestic service is not necessarily lowly, and given decent working conditions, many women are quite all right with serving others even if the pay is not the toppiest of top-end. American women ran from service because the conditions and pay were both pretty crummy (the Woman Homesteader of Wyoming I wrote a bit about a white back was willing to trade the conditions of working as a laundress in an urban area for the backbreaking work of homesteading in Wyoming.) They didn’t run because they disliked serving others necessarily. Some did, but others would have been happy to keep doing that as a job if they were treated like humans by their employers. Things these days are not going in that direction, with the rise of “servant apps” where you just-in-time schedule your domestic help (“assistants”). Meanwhile, the paternalism that drives our own hiring is sneered at for not being all-encompassing enough. Vacation days, feh! You don’t pay health insurance! Health insurance? Pah, you don’t put in a 401k! Middle-class American women used to be able to afford domestic help not just because the wages were exempted, but also because it wasn’t considered a job, it was considered a relationship with pay at its best (and worst, of course). Nobody wants to have human relationships anymore or accept the consequences of paternalism at its best (being responsible personally for those you employ) and in America part of that is being able to just up and move away from paternalism at its worst (Papin sisters, worst of chattel slavery).